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Characteristic of national minority concept and multiculturalism

Characteristic of national minority concept and multiculturalism

Culture
27 May 2016, 16:15 2273
Today the Western Europe has been retaining hundreds of national minorities. It is said that, in Europe if it had an opportunity it could be established hundreds perhaps thousands small kingdoms and earldoms. National minorities issue is more complicated in Spain in comparison with neighboring countries. If the national minority claims itself both French and Catalan in France but in Spain a Catalan only in death  threat speaks in Spanish. The 11st of September of every year about a million Catalons rally in the streets of Barcelona and declare to the world they are not Spanish. It is uncommon case that such kind of trouble occurs in Spain one of the powerful states of Europe. Ranging from the simple a sewing factory to a car factory there is everything in Catalonia. All income got in Catalonia flow to Madrid. Only 40 cents for every $ 1 is added to the local Catalan budget. 60% of the income is spent on taxes and the center. According to the Spanish law, each province gets investment according to a percentage of the population. However, it does not ascribe to Catalonia.  Although 18% of Spanish population live in Catalonia and 25 % of  the country's national income belongs to Catalonia but this province gets only 11% investment. Under such circumstances, Catalons see the solution only in independence. The independence that so far away from them. 

People come from 120 countries and speaking in 81 languages live in Israel. Majority of them are Jews who had been living in different countries for long years. A slogan of Jews "Speak in Hebrew” has been realizing through the years. Jews coming from various countries of the world and speaking in different languages have  began to speak in Jewish language. Serious collapses had occurred between the Western Jews come from Europe who call themselves seemingly hot and Palestinian Jews,  inwardly warm people. People who learn Jewish language  do not hide their desire to live in Israel and  want to protect their languages.  After 1967 the multiculturalism started to take shape in Israel. But regretfully there haven’t been good towards the Arab minority. 
Through the 10 years, over 1.100.000 people  from CIS countries moved to Israel that those people consist 18% of the country's population. Currently, 2 TV channels, 6 radio stations, and more than 30 newspapers run in Russian language in Israel for those people. 

Kazakhstan’s policy in the field of the convergence of cultures and civilizations at the both national and international level is estimable among the former Soviet republics. During the years of independence, effective and legal base in the country's ethnic and religious equality has been established. Laws on freedom of religion and language of the nations living in Kazakhstan are the bases of this policy. 
"National Unity Doctrine” adopted last year is significant step. The Assembly, which has constitutional status of nations living in Kazakhstan has become base institution of interracial agreement.  The Institute includes 820 ethno-cultural unities. Since 2003, Astana, the capital city of Kazakhstan has become the center of global inter-religious dialogue. In years of 2003, 2006 and 2009, at the round table meetings held by initiative of President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev, with participation of world and traditional religions leaders, representatives of different religions have been made great strides toward the tolerance.  
Ukraine had been known as a mononational state. According to the census conducted in 2001, 78% of the population are ethnic Ukrainians. A part of ethnic Ukrainians speak in their native languages, another part in Russian language. They have been shaped in strong influence of Soviet cultural and political traditions. 17% of the population are Russians. Hungarian national minority compactly live in Carpathian as well as,  Romanian and Moldovan national minorities live in Cernovits province. There are three Orthodox churches which each church is distinguished by its regional impact area. The churches are competing with each other. The Greek Catholic Church fairly influences to Ukraine. Protestant religious community, as before, is now quite active too. Muslim Community of Crimea and Donbas is more active. At the beginning of the 90s, one of the specific problems was a separatist mood  of the country's Russian-speaking population.   Moreover, in the 1990s  the idea of a national-territorial autonomy was actual in Crimean Tatar community which still keeps its actuality. 
Since 1991, every person has got citizenship in Ukraine  regardless of his national origin. In 1989 a law on ensuring the language rights of national minorities was adopted. Moreover, the law on national minorities was confirmed in 1992. In the  middle of the 1990s Ukraine ratified the European map in German language. Before that a law defining Ukraine's unitary nature confirmed via the Constitution  was adopted in 1996. 
Today the condition in Ukraine is worse.  Russians living in Crimea and east of the country (Donetsk, Lugansk) revolted and demanded to separate from the center (Kiev). But it is difficult to predict the ending. 

Armenia’s state policy of ethnic and racial structure continues becoming a serious threat. The ideas of multiculturalism is only possible in those places where national minorities live in conditions of equality and tolerance. 

Armenia,  deported all the nations living in its territory has led large-scale ethnic cleansing policy in the occupied territories of Azerbaijan. Moreover, Georgians and other ethnic minorities frequently face  problems. In this case,  it is impossible to talk about multiculturalism in this country.

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, primarily Dashnaktsutyun government then the Soviet government in several stages  deported systematically Azerbaijanis  and other national  minorities living in Armenia. Today an Azerbaijani does not live in Armenia. After deportation of Azerbaijanis Armenia finally solved the national minority "issue”. Although other national minorities are not a threat for Armenia but the government puts pressure on Muslim Kurds, Yezidis, Jews,  Georgians and other national minorities. The number of national minorities is not more than 50 thousand people. None of those  national minorities live compactly. 

Assyrians, Belorussians, Georgians, Germans, Greeks, Jews, Kurds, Russians, Molokans, Ukrainians and Yezidis are national minorities in Armenia. While analyzing  Armenia’s state policy on national minorities after the 1990s a serious pressure put on minorities seems clearly. Recently ethnic discrimination against Yezidis is fairly felt. Beginning from the end of the last century almost 6.000 - 10.000 Yezidis have left Armenia. Due to population growth Yazidis are main factor , and this issue makes Armenians concerned.  

As a result of the Armenian state policy on national minorities Yezidis and other minorities have been kept away from the socio-political and cultural life of Armenia. When communities of national minorities protest against the government they  face opposite statements. The Armenian state 

Doctor of Political Sciences Hatem Jabbarli  writes that  Armenia leads the same policy to other national minorities which did against Azerbaijanis at the end of the twentieth century. Armenians destruct deliberately and systematically historical monuments and works of art belonged to those minorities.  National minorities demands of Armenian government are very simple. Firstly, they demand adoption of a law on national minorities,  representation of national minorities in the Armenian Parliament and foundation of an organization interested in problems of national minorities. 

Though Armenia has taken responsibility to implement the European Convention on Human Rights protocols and provide all religious centers of worship without any exception but it has not fulfilled any of these commitments. Regretfully the world society and int’l organizations do not try to highlight the problem. Because they pretend to be ignoramus about the fact. 

On January 21, 2003, Council of Europe's Committee of Ministers  adopted a document giving specific recommendations to the state leadership to protect rights of national minorities. The document has been prepared on the basis of the monitoring conducted within the framework of the Convention on the Protection of National Minorities. The document calls Armenian government to take necessary measures in order to protect rights of national minorities. In the report, the above mentioned minorities Yezidi Kurds and Assyrians were noted. Regretfully there has not been any fact on deportation of Azerbaijanis lived in Armenian territory. 

The condition is not pleasing in Georgia too. The most significant responsibility taken by Georgia during accession to the European Council in 1999 was the return of the Meskhetian Turks  to their historical homeland. According to the commitment, Georgia had to adopt a law on Rehabilitation and Repatriation within 2 years and resolve the problem in stages over 10 years. Although a commission due to return of Meskhetian Turks was repeatedly established  and the state program was confirmed but any significant progress towards the solution of this issue has not been reached yet. 
As you know, since the beginning of the 90s, the most active center of national movement of Meskhetian Turks has shaped Azerbaijan. It also should be noted that Azerbaijanis living in Georgia also have been facing troubles. Specially, An infrastructure, economic and socio-cultural development, secondary education are not satisfactory  in those regions where Azerbaijanis live compactly. 
More precisely, standards of living  of the Azerbaijanis living in Georgia is incomparably lower than Georgians and Ingiloys - minority having Georgian origin  living in Azerbaijan. 

In a report (http://www.borchali.net/index.php?s=hesabat_movcud_ veziyyet)  prepared by Center for Legal Assistance to Migrants and Georgia's "Caucasian" Non-Governmental Organization was noted that during 1989-1993 years  mass deportation of Azerbaijanis from the country began under the chauvinistic slogan  "Georgia for Georgians” . For implementation this plan the mass sacking of Azerbaijanis, kidnapping with the direct participation of official government structures, patients forced removal from hospital  and so on. oppression and persecution had started. From 1989 until 1993 over 10,000 Azerbaijani families were driven out of Georgia. During 1989-1994 1800 Azerbaijani families from Bolnisi, 300 from Kazreti, about 1000 families from Dmanisi, 1650 families from Tbilisi and Rustavi were driven out. About 60 villages completely emptied within a short period of time, the cleaning up process of 155 villages from Azerbaijanis implemented gradually. Newspapers and state radio stopped broadcasting in Azerbaijani language, dozens of schools were closed. 

 According to the census conducted on the 17th of February, 1989 the number of Azerbaijanis in Georgia were more than 600,000. According to the census conducted  by the Georgian State Statistics Committee in 2002, 284.761 Azerbaijanis live in this country, which is 6.5 per cent of the country's population.
 
Niyaz Niftiyev